OpenGL Shading Language Course Chapter 2 – GLSL Basics By Jacobo Rodriguez Villar [email protected] TyphoonLabs’ GLSL Course 1/1 Chapter 2: GLSL Basics INDEX Introduction GLSL Language Mechanisms Borrowed from C++ 2 2 2 Character Set 2 Pre-processor Keywords 3 Comments 3 Variables and Types 4 Type Descriptions 4 Type Qualifiers 9 Operators and Preference 10 Subroutines 10 Flow Control 11 Built-in Variables 11 Built-in Constants 14 Built-in Attributes 14 General Built-in Uniform States 15 Varying Variables 18 Built-in Functions 19 TyphoonLabs’ GLSL Course 2/2 Introduction This chapter will attempt to summarize the entire GLSL 1.10.59 specification. GLSL itself is a C-like language, which borrows features from C++. Knowledge of C is assumed, so the fundamentals and basics of that language will not be explained further (with exception to the parts that differ between C and C++). GLSL Language Mechanisms Borrowed from C++: • Function overloading based on argument types. • Declaration of variables where they are required, instead of at the beginning of each block. Character Set The character set used for GLSL is a subset of ASCII, and includes the following characters: 1º The letters a-z, A-Z, and the underscore ( _ ). 2º The numbers 0-9. 3º The symbols period (.), plus (+), dash (-), slash (/), asterisk (*), percent (%), angled brackets (< and >), square brackets ( [ and ] ), parentheses ( ( and ) ), braces ( { and } ), caret (^), vertical bar ( | ), ampersand (&), tilde (~), equals (=), exclamation point (!), colon (:), semicolon (;), comma (,), and question mark (?). 4º The number sign (#) for pre-processor use. 5º White space: the space character, horizontal tab, vertical tab, form feed, carriagereturn, and linefeed. The character set is case-sensitive, and there are no characters or string data types, so no quotation characters are included. Also, the language does not allow any pointer types or any kind of pointer arithmetic. TyphoonLabs’ GLSL Course 3/3 Pre-processor Keywords Operates as is standard for C++ pre-processors. # Operates as is standard for C++ pre-processors. #define Operates as is standard for C++ pre-processors. #undef Operates as is standard for C++ pre-processors (only for integer and #defined types). #if Operates as is standard for C++ pre-processors. #ifdef Operates as is standard for C++ pre-processors. #ifndef Operates as is standard for C++ pre-processors. #else Operates as is standard for C++ pre-processors (only for integer and #defined types). #elif Operates as is standard for C++ pre-processors. #endif #error #pragma error will cause the implementation to put a diagnostic message in the shader’s information log. The message will be the tokens following the #error directive, up to the first new line. The implementation must then consider the shader to be ill-formed. #pragma allows implementation-dependent compiler control. Tokens following #pragma are not subject to pre-processor macro expansion. The following pragmas are defined as part of the language: #pragma optimize(on) #pragma optimize(off) #pragma debug(on) #pragma debug(off) For default, any extension to the language must be enabled using this keyword: #extension extension_name : behaviour #extension all : behaviour #extension #version [Frame1] The initial state of the compiler is as if the directive #extension all : disable was issued, telling the compiler that all error and warning reporting must be done according to this specification, ignoring any extensions. Macro expansion is not done on lines containing #extension directive. Used to declare the GLSL version against the shader. Written (#version number), where number must be 110 for this specification’s version of the language (following the same convention as __VERSION__ above), in which case the directive will be accepted with no errors or warnings. Any number less than 110 will cause an error to be generated. Macro expansion is not done on lines containing #version directive. #line must have, after macro substitution, one of the following two forms: #line line or #line line source-string-number #line defined where line and source-string-number are constant integer expressions. After processing this directive (including its new-line), the implementation will behave as if it is compiling at line number line+1 and source string number source-string-number. Subsequent source strings will be numbered sequentially, until another #line directive overrides that numbering. The defined operator can be used in either of the following ways: defined identifier or defined ( identifier ) __LINE__ will substitute a decimal integer constant that is one more than the number of preceding newlines in the current source string. __FILE__ will substitute a decimal integer constant that says which source string number __FILE__ is currently being processed. __VERSION__ will substitute a decimal integer reflecting the version number of the __VERSION__ OpenGL shading language. The version of the shading language described in this document will have __VERSION__ substitute the decimal integer 110. __LINE__ Comments Comments are delimited by /* and */, or by // and a new-line. The begin comment delimiters (/* or //) are not recognized as delimiters when inside a comment, meaning nesting does not exist. Variables and types These are the basic GLSL types: TyphoonLabs’ GLSL Course 4/4 GLSL data type bool int float vec2 vect3 vec4 bvec2 bvec3 bvec4 ivec2 ivec3 ivec4 mat2 mat3 mat4 sampler1D sampler2D sampler3D samplerCube sampler1DShadow Sampler2DShadow C data type int int float float [2] float [3] float [4] int [2] int [3] int [4] int [2] int [3] int [4] float [4] float [9] float [16] int int int int int int Description A conditional type, taking on values of true or false. Signed integer. Single floating-point scalar. Two component floating-point vector. Three component floating-point vector. Four component floating-point vector. Two component Boolean vector. Three component Boolean vector. Four component Boolean vector. Two component signed integer vector. Three component signed integer vector. Four component signed integer vector. 2×2 floating-point matrix. 3×3 floating-point matrix. 4×4 floating-point matrix. Handle for accessing a 1D texture. Handle for accessing a 2D texture. Handle for accessing a 3D texture. Handle for accessing a cubemap texture. A handle for accessing a 1D depth texture with comparison. A handle for accessing a 2D depth texture with comparison. Type Descriptions Booleans To make conditional execution of code easier to express, the type bool is supported. There is no expectation that hardware directly supports variables of this type. It is a genuine Boolean type, holding only one of two values (either true or false). Two keywords, true and false, can be used as Boolean constants. Integers Integers are mainly supported as a programming aid. At the hardware level, real integers would aid in the efficient implementation of loops and array indices, and in referencing texture units. However, there is no requirement that integers used within the language can map to integer types used within hardware. It is not expected that underlying hardware has full support for a wide range of integer operations. Because of their intended (limited) purpose, integers are limited to 16 bits of precision, plus a sign representation in both the vertex and fragment languages. There is no automatic promotion from int to float (so int a=1.0; would cause an error, for example). Floats Floats are available for use within a variety of scalar calculations. Floating-point variables are defined as follows: float a = 1.8; Vector types GLSL includes data types for generic 2, 3, and 4 component vectors of floating-point values, integers, or booleans. Defining vectors as part of the shading language allows for direct mapping of vector operations on graphics hardware that is capable of doing vector processing. In general, applications will be able to take better advantage of the parallelism in graphics hardware by doing computations on vectors rather than on scalar values. TyphoonLabs’ GLSL Course 5/5 Vector elements can be accessed in several ways: For example, using vec4 myVector; we can access myVector’s elements in the usual way: myVector[1] = 6.4; Another way of accessing the elements is to use the struct subscript: myVector.y = 6.4 or myVector.s = 6.4; When using a struct subscript, we have the following access names for the indices (they are synonyms): [0] [1] [2] [3] Useful when element looping is required. x y z w Useful when accessing vectors that represent points. s t p q Useful when accessing vectors that texture coordinates. r g b a Useful when accessing vectors that represent colors. Accessing components beyond those declared for the vector type is an error, meaning: vec2 pos; pos.x // is legal pos.z // is illegal The component selection syntax allows multiple components to be selected by appending their names (from the same name set) after the period character ( . ): vec4 v4; v4.rgba; // is a vec4 and the same as just using v4 v4.rgb; // is a vec3 v4.b; // is a float v4.xy; // is a vec2 v4.xgba; // is illegal - the component names do not come from the same set The order of the components can be changed or replicated via sizzling: vec4 pos = vec4(1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0); vec4 swiz = pos.wzyx; // swiz = (4.0, 3.0, 2.0, 1.0) vec4 dup = pos.xxyy; // dup = (1.0, 1.0, 2.0, 2.0) TyphoonLabs’ GLSL Course 6/6 Component group notation can occur on the left-hand side of an expression: vec4 pos pos.xw = pos.wx = pos.xx = pos.xy = = vec4(1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0); vec2(5.0, 6.0); // pos = (5.0, 2.0, 3.0, 6.0) vec2(7.0, 8.0); // pos = (8.0, 2.0, 3.0, 7.0) vec2(3.0, 4.0); // illegal - 'x' used twice vec3(1.0, 2.0, 3.0); // illegal - mismatch between vec2 and vec3 Some examples of vector type construction: vec3 (float) // initializes each component of a vec3 with the float vec4 (ivec4) // makes a vec4 from an ivec4, with component-wise conversion vec2 (float, float) // initializes a vec2 with 2 floats ivec3 (int, int, int) // initializes an ivec3 with 3 ints bvec4 (int, int, float, float) // initializes with 4 Boolean conversions vec2 (vec3) // drops the third component of a vec3 vec3 (vec4) // drops the fourth component of a vec4 vec3 (vec2, float) // vec3.x = vec2.x, vec3.y = vec2.y, vec3.z = float vec3 (float, vec2) // vec3.x = float, vec3.y = vec2.x, vec3.z = vec2.y vec4 (vec3, float) vec4 (float, vec3) vec4 (vec2, vec2) Examples: vec4 color = vec4(0.0, 1.0, 0.0, 1.0); vec4 rgba = vec4(1.0); // sets each component to 1.0 Matrices GLSL supports 2×2, 3×3, and 4×4 matrices of floating-point numbers. Matrices are readfrom and written-to the column in major order. Example matrix declarations: mat2 mat2D; mat3 optMatrix; mat4 view, projection; Matrices are based on vectors, so syntax like optMatrix[2]=vec3(1.0,1.0,1.0); is allowed. For example, initializing the diagonal of a matrix with all other elements set to zero: mat2(float) mat3(float) mat4(float) TyphoonLabs’ GLSL Course 7/7 Initializing a matrix can be achieved by specifying vectors, or specifying all 4, 9, or 16 floats for mat2, mat3, and mat4 respectively. The floats are then assigned to elements in column major order. mat2(vec2, vec2); mat3(vec3, vec3, vec3); mat4(vec4, vec4, vec4, vec4); mat2(float, float, float, float); mat3(float, float, float, float, float, float, float, float, float); mat4(float, float, float, float, float, float, float, float, float, float, float, float, float, float, float, float); There are many possibilities here, as long as enough components are present to initialize the matrix. However, construction of a matrix from other matrices is currently reserved for future use. Samplers Sampler types (like sampler2D) are effectively opaque handles to textures. They are used with the built-in texture functions to access textures, and can only be declared as function parameters or uniforms. Samplers are not allowed to be used as operands within expressions, nor can they be assigned within. As uniforms, they are initialized through the OpenGL API using int type. Note: Samplers represent texture units, not texture objects. In order to use a texture within a shader, it must first be bound to a texture unit, and then the tex unit number must be passed to the shader. Some cards only have few texture units (for example, the GeForce FX5200 hardware only has four). If we only have access to GL_MAX_TEXTURE_UNITS textures within the shader this will not be an ideal situation. However, this perceived limitation is not entirely correct: A texture unit is composed of an image, a matrix, an interpolator, and a coordinate generation processor. Though we are limited by the number of texture images available, we are not limited by the number of texture units. This number can be obtained by querying GL_MAX_COMBINED_TEXTURE_IMAGE_UNITS_ARB (with a FX5200 this number is 16). Graphics cards usually have more texture images than texture units. TyphoonLabs’ GLSL Course 8/8 The GLSL extensions (both vertex and fragment) specify that in order to set a texture to a texture image, the texture unit does not have to be enabled. The following example shows how to set-up texures within OpenGL, for use with uniform samplers: for(int I = 0;I< my number of textures;I++) { glActiveTextureARB(GL_TEXTURE0_ARB + I); glBindTextureARB(GL_TEXTURE_2D,my_texture_array[I]); // glEnable(GL_TEXTURE_2D); Å this command is not needed int location = glGetUniformLocationARB(myProgramObject, mySamplerNameArray[I]); glUniform1iARB(location, I ); } glActiveTextureARB(GL_TEXTURE0_ARB); Structures User-defined types can be created by aggregating pre-defined types into a structure using the struct keyword. For example: struct light { float intensity; vec3 position; } lightVar; Here, light becomes the name of the new type, and lightVar becomes a variable of type light. To declare variables of the new type, simply use its name: light lightVar2; Arrays Variables of the same type can be aggregated into arrays by declaring a name followed by brackets ( [ ] ) enclosing an optional size. When an array size is specified within a declaration, it must be an integral constant expression greater than zero. All basic types and structures can be formed into arrays: float frequencies[3]; uniform vec4 lightPosition[4]; light lights[]; const int numLights = 2; light lights[numLights]; TyphoonLabs’ GLSL Course 9/9 Type Qualifiers Variable declarations can be accompanied by zero or more qualifiers: <none> const attribute uniform varying in out inout Local read/write memory, or an input parameter to a function. A compile-time constant, or a function parameter that is read-only. Linkage between a vertex shader and OpenGL for per-vertex data (to define attributes). Value does not change across the primitive being processed; uniforms form the linkage between a shader, OpenGL, and the application. Linkage between a vertex shader and a fragment shader for interpolated data. For function parameters passed into a function. For function parameters passed back out of a function, but not initialized for use when passed in. For function parameters passed both into and out of a function. Here are some rules for these qualifiers: • • • • • Global variables can only use the qualifiers const, attribute, uniform, or varying. Only one may be specified. Local variables can only use the qualifier const. Function parameters can only use the in, out, inout, or const qualifiers. Function return types and structure fields do not use qualifiers. Data types for communication from one execution of a shader to the next (to communicate between fragments or between vertices) do not exist. This would prevent parallel execution of the same shader on multiple vertices or fragments. Example: attribute vec3 tangent; attribute vec3 binormal; uniform sampler2D bump_map; const int val = 0; void ComputeSomeVector(in vec3 input, out vec3 result); void transformVector(inout vec3 vector); varying float lightIntensity; varying vec4 texture_coord_aux; ivec3 variable; TyphoonLabs’ GLSL Course 10/10 Operators and Preference Operator and preference are very similar to C and C++, but with some restrictions: • • • • • There is no pointer operator or de-reference operator. There is no sizeof operator. Bits-wise operations are illegal: no shift left/right (<< or >>), no exclusive/inclusive or (^, | ). Modulus operation is illegal (%). Unary NOT (~) is illegal. Subroutines As indicated previously, a valid shader is a sequence of global declarations and function definitions. An example of function declaration could be: // Prototype returnType functionName (type0 arg0, type1 arg1, ..., typen argn); // A function is defined like: returnType functionName (type0 arg0, type1 arg1, ..., typen argn) { // Do some computation. return returnValue; } • returnType must be present and include a type. Each type* must include a type and can optionally include the qualifier in, out, inout, and/or const. • Arrays are allowed as arguments, but not as return types. When arrays are declared as formal parameters, their size must be included. An array is passed to a function by using the array name without any sub-scripting or brackets. The size of the array argument passed within must match the size specified in the formal parameter declaration. • Structures are also allowed as arguments. The return type can also be structure. Functions can be overloaded, as long as the argument list differs. For example, the built-in dot product function has the following prototypes: float float float float dot dot dot dot (float x, float y); (vec2 x, vec2 y); (vec3 x, vec3 y); (vec4 x, vec4 y); The function main is used as the entry point to a shader. The shader does not need to have a main method, as one of the other shaders within the linked set will have one. TyphoonLabs’ GLSL Course 11/11 This function accepts no arguments, returns no value, and must be declared as type void.. Flow Control GLSL provides the same mechanisms for flow control as C does, except that GLSL doesn’t have the switch structure or goto statement. The rest is enumerated here: • • • • • • • • • • • for while do – while if if – else ?: (selection) continue break return; return expression; discard (only allowed within fragment shaders) can be used to abandon the current fragment operation. This keyword causes the fragment to be discarded and ceases buffer updates. It would typically be used within a conditional statement: If(texture.a > 0.5) discard; Built-in Variables GLSL provides a set of variables and constants to access the OpenGL fixed function states, such as light parameters (position, diffuse, and color). Some of these variables are mandatory and need to be written (i.e gl_Position and gl_FragColor), while others are read-only (uniform built-in variables). Vertex Shader Special Built-in Variables gl_Position is only available within vertex shaders, and is intended for writing the homogeneous vertex position. Shaders need to write this variable to be valid, and it can be written at any time during shader execution. It may also be read-back by the shader after being written. This value will be used by the primitive assembly, clipping, culling, and other fixed functionality operations that operate on primitives after vertex processing has occurred. Compilers may generate a diagnostic message if they detect that gl_Position has not written, or was read before being written, but not all such cases are detectable. Results are undefined if a vertex shader is executed and does not write gl_Position. gl_PointSize is only available within vertex shaders, and is intended to write the size of the point to be rasterized (measured in pixels). gl_ClipVertex is only available within vertex shaders, and provides a place for vertex shaders to write the coordinates to be used with the clipping planes. The user must ensure the clip vertex and user clipping planes are defined in the same coordinate space. User clipping planes only function correctly under linear transform, though what happens under non-linear transform is undefined. TyphoonLabs’ GLSL Course 12/12 The built-in vertex shader variables for communicating with fixed functionality are intrinsically declared with the following types: vec4 gl Position; // Must be written to. float gl_PointSize; // May be written to. vec4 gl_ClipVertex; // May be written to. If gl_PointSize or gl_ClipVertex are not written to, their values are undefined. Any of these variables can be read back by the shader after writing to them to retrieve what was written. Reading them before writing the results is undefined behavior. If they are written to more than once, the last value written is the one that is used/assumed. These built-in variables have a global scope. TyphoonLabs’ GLSL Course 13/13 Fragment Shader Built-in Variables There are three variables that can be written by the fragment shader, though only one is mandatory (unless the discard keyword is executed): vec4 gl FragCoord; // May be written to. bool gl_FrontFacing; // May be written to. float gl_FragDepth; // May be written to. One of these must be written: vec4 gl_FragColor; vec4 gl_FragData[gl_MaxDrawBuffers]; // gl_FragData[0] is a synonym of gl_FragColor if GL_ARB_draw_buffers or GL_ATI_draw_buffers extension is present. gl_FragData[*] is only allowed if the extension GL_ARB_draw_buffer is implemented in the current GLSL implementation. If it is implemented, the symbol GL_ARB_draw_buffer must be defined as 1 within the fragment shader. Usually, gl_FragColor is the variable that will be written, unless the shader uses MRT (multiple rendering targets). • • • • gl_FragColor refers to the current fragment that will appear within the framebuffer. gl_FragData[*]; refers to the current fragment that will appear within the indexed buffer. gl_MaxDrawBuffers is a built-in constant that holds the maximum number of buffers available to be written to. gl_FrontFacing holds a boolean value that tells if the current fragment corresponds to a front face or to a back face. Writing to gl_FragDepth will establish the depth value to be used for the fragment being processed. If depth buffering is enabled, and a shader does not write a gl_FragDepth value, then the fixed function value for depth will be used as the fragment’s depth value. If a shader statically contains a write to gl_FragDepth, then it is responsible for always writing it, meaning if a path writes gl_FragDepth, then all paths must write to it as well. Otherwise, the value of the fragment’s depth may be undefined for executions of the shader that take that path. gl_FragCoord is available as a read-only variable from within fragment shaders and holds the window relative x, y, z coordinates, along with the 1/w values for the fragment. This value is the result of the fixed functionality that interpolates primitives after vertex processing to generate fragments. The z component is the depth value that would be used for the fragment’s depth, should the shader not write to gl_FragDepth. TyphoonLabs’ GLSL Course 14/14 Built-in Constants These constants are available from both vertex and fragment shaders. The displayed values are the minimum required for a successful GLSL implementation: const const const const const const const const const const const const int int int int int int int int int int int int gl MaxLights = 8; gl_MaxClipPlanes = 6; gl_MaxTextureUnits = 2; gl_MaxTextureCoords = 2; gl_MaxVertexAttribs = 16; gl_MaxVertexUniformComponents = 512 gl_MaxVaryingFloats = 32; gl_MaxVertexTextureImageUnits = 0; gl_MaxCombinedTextureImageUnits = 2; gl_MaxTextureImageUnits = 2; gl_MaxFragmentUniformComponents = 64 gl_MaxDrawBuffers = 1; // Proposed ARB_draw_buffers. Built-in Attributes The following attribute names are built into the GLSL language, and can be used from within vertex shaders to access the current values of attributes declared by OpenGL: attribute attribute attribute attribute vec4 vec4 vec3 vec4 gl Color; // Filled with glColorxx OpenGL call. gl_SecondaryColor; // Filled with glSecondaryColorxx OpenGL call. gl_Normal; // Filled with glNormalxx OpenGL call. gl_Vertex; // Filled with glVertexxx OpenGL call. // gl_MultiTexCoordx are filled with the glTexCoordxx or glMultiTexCoordxx OpenGL call. attribute vec4 gl_MultiTexCoord0; attribute vec4 gl_MultiTexCoord1; attribute vec4 gl_MultiTexCoord2; attribute vec4 gl_MultiTexCoord3; attribute vec4 gl_MultiTexCoord4; attribute vec4 gl_MultiTexCoord5; attribute vec4 gl_MultiTexCoord6; attribute vec4 gl_MultiTexCoord7; attribute float gl_FogCoord; // Filled with glFogCoordxx OpenGL call. // All of these values can be filled also, using all types of vertex arrays (VBO, VAR, etc.) . TyphoonLabs’ GLSL Course 15/15 General Built-in Uniform States These states are initialized using standard OpenGL calls, or derived from them: uniform mat4 gl ModelViewMatrix; uniform mat4 gl_ProjectionMatrix; uniform mat4 gl_ModelViewProjectionMatrix; uniform mat4 gl_TextureMatrix[gl_MaxTextureCoords]; uniform mat3 gl_NormalMatrix; // Transpose of the inverse of the upper leftmost 3x3 of gl_ModelViewMatrix. uniform mat4 gl_ModelViewMatrixInverse; uniform mat4 gl_ProjectionMatrixInverse; uniform mat4 gl_ModelViewProjectionMatrixInverse; uniform mat4 gl_TextureMatrixInverse[gl_MaxTextureCoords]; uniform mat4 gl_ModelViewMatrixTranspose; uniform mat4 gl_ProjectionMatrixTranspose; uniform mat4 gl_ModelViewProjectionMatrixTranspose; uniform mat4 gl_TextureMatrixTranspose[gl_MaxTextureCoords]; uniform mat4 gl_ModelViewMatrixInverseTranspose; uniform mat4 gl_ProjectionMatrixInverseTranspose; uniform mat4 gl_ModelViewProjectionMatrixInverseTranspose; uniform mat4 gl_TextureMatrixInverseTranspose[gl_MaxTextureCoords]; // Normal scaling. uniform float gl_NormalScale; // Depth range in window coordinates. struct gl_DepthRangeParameters { float near; float far; float diff; // far - near }; uniform gl_DepthRangeParameters gl_DepthRange; uniform vec4 gl_ClipPlane[gl_MaxClipPlanes]; struct gl_PointParameters { float size; float sizeMin; float sizeMax; float fadeThresholdSize; float distanceConstantAttenuation; float distanceLinearAttenuation; float distanceQuadraticAttenuation; }; uniform gl_PointParameters gl_Point; TyphoonLabs’ GLSL Course 16/16 struct gl MaterialParameters { vec4 emission; // Ecm vec4 ambient; // Acm vec4 diffuse; // Dcm vec4 specular; // Scm float shininess; // Srm }; uniform gl_MaterialParameters gl_FrontMaterial, gl_BackMaterial; struct gl_LightSourceParameters { vec4 ambient; // Acli vec4 diffuse; // Dcli vec4 specular; // Scli vec4 position; // Ppli vec4 halfVector; // Derived: Hi vec3 spotDirection; // Sdli float spotExponent; // Srli float spotCutoff; // Crli (range: [0.0,90.0], 180.0) float spotCosCutoff; // Derived: cos(Crli) (range: [1.0,0.0],-1.0) float constantAttenuation; // K0 float linearAttenuation; // K1 float quadraticAttenuation;// K2 }; uniform gl_LightSourceParameters gl_LightSource[gl_MaxLights]; struct gl_LightModelParameters { vec4 ambient; // Acs }; uniform gl_LightModelParameters gl_LightModel; // Derived state from products of light and material. struct gl_LightModelProducts { vec4 sceneColor; // Derived. Ecm + Acm * Acs }; uniform gl_LightModelProducts gl_FrontLightModelProduct, gl_BackLightModelProduct; struct gl_LightProducts { vec4 ambient; // Acm * Acli vec4 diffuse; // Dcm * Dcli vec4 specular; // Scm * Scli }; uniform gl_LightProducts gl_FrontLightProduct[gl_MaxLights], gl_BackLightProduct[gl_MaxLights]; TyphoonLabs’ GLSL Course 17/17 uniform uniform uniform uniform uniform uniform uniform uniform uniform vec4 vec4 vec4 vec4 vec4 vec4 vec4 vec4 vec4 gl TextureEnvColor[gl MaxTextureImageUnits]; gl_EyePlaneS[gl_MaxTextureCoords]; gl_EyePlaneT[gl_MaxTextureCoords]; gl_EyePlaneR[gl_MaxTextureCoords]; gl_EyePlaneQ[gl_MaxTextureCoords]; gl_ObjectPlaneS[gl_MaxTextureCoords]; gl_ObjectPlaneT[gl_MaxTextureCoords]; gl_ObjectPlaneR[gl_MaxTextureCoords]; gl_ObjectPlaneQ[gl_MaxTextureCoords]; struct gl_FogParameters { vec4 color; float density; float start; float end; float scale; // Derived: 1.0 / (end - start) }; uniform gl_FogParameters gl_Fog; More information on the other uniform states GLSL states can be found at: http://oss.sgi.com/projects/ogl-sample/registry/ARB/GLSLangSpec.Full.1.10.59.pdf TyphoonLabs’ GLSL Course 18/18 Varying Variables Unlike user-defined varying variables, the built-in varying variables don’t have a strict oneto-one correspondence between the vertex language and the fragment language. Two sets are provided, one for each language. Their relationship is described below: Vertex Shader Varying Variables The following built-in varying variables are writable from vertex shaders. The one that should be written to (if any) should link to a corresponding fragment shader or fixed pipeline which uses it or a state derived from it. Otherwise, behavior is undefined: varying varying varying varying varying varying vec4 gl FrontColor; vec4 gl_BackColor; vec4 gl_FrontSecondaryColor; vec4 gl_BackSecondaryColor; vec4 gl_TexCoord[]; // At most will be gl_MaxTextureCoords. float gl_FogFragCoord; Fragment Shader Varying Variables The following varying variables are readable from fragment shaders. gl_Color and gl_SecondaryColor are the same names as the attributes passed to the vertex shader. However, there is no name conflict, as the attributes are visible only within vertex shaders, and the following are only visible in a fragment shader: varying varying varying varying vec4 gl Color; vec4 gl_SecondaryColor; vec4 gl_TexCoord[]; // At most will be gl_MaxTextureCoords. float gl_FogFragCoord; The fragment shader values gl_Color and gl_SecondaryColor will be automatically derived from the system through gl_FrontColor, gl_BackColor, gl_FrontSecondaryColor, and gl_BackSecondaryColor, based on the visible face. TyphoonLabs’ GLSL Course 19/19 Built-in Functions GLSL defines an assortment of built-in convenience functions for scalar and vector operations. Many of these built-in functions can be used in more than one type of shader, but some are intended to provide a direct mapping to hardware, and as such are only available for specific types of shaders. The built-in functions fall into three main categories: • • • They expose some necessary hardware functionality in a convenient way, such as accessing texture maps. There is no way in the language for these functions to be emulated by a shader. They represent a trivial operation (clamp, mix, etc.) that is very simple for the user to write, but is very common and may have direct hardware support. It is a very difficult problem for the compiler to map expressions into complex assembler instructions. They represent an operation that graphics hardware will likely be able to accelerate at some point. Trigonometry functions would fall into this category, for example. When using the built-in functions specified below, the input arguments (and corresponding output) can be float, vec2, vec3, vec4, or genType as used as the argument. For any specific use of a function, the actual type has to be the same for all arguments and for the return type. This is similar to mat, which can be a mat2, mat3, or mat4. Trigonometric Functions genType genType genType genType genType genType genType genType genType radians (genType degrees) degrees (genType radians) sin (genType angle) cos (genType angle) tan (genType angle) asin (genType x) acos (genType x) atan (genType y, genType x) atan (genType y_over_x) Exponential Functions genType genType genType genType genType genType genType pow (genType x, genType y) exp (genType x) log (genType x) exp2 (genType x) log2 (genType x) sqrt (genType x) inversesqrt (genType x) TyphoonLabs’ GLSL Course 20/20 Common Functions genType abs (genType x) genType sign (genType x) genType floor (genType x) // Returns a value equal to the nearest integer that is less than or equal to x. genType ceil (genType x) // Returns a value equal to the nearest integer that is greater than or equal to x. genType fract (genType x) // Returns x – floor (x). genType mod (genType x, float y) // Modulus. Returns x – y . floor (x/y). genType mod (genType x, genType y) // Modulus. Returns x – y . floor (x/y). genType min (genType x, genType y) genType min (genType x, float y) genType max (genType x, genType y) genType max (genType x, float y) genType clamp (genType x, genType minVal, genType maxVal) genType clamp (genType x, float minVal, float maxVal) // Note that colors and depths written by fragment shaders will be clamped by the implementation after the fragment shader runs. genType mix (genType x, genType y, genType a) genType mix (genType x, genType y, float a) // Returns x * (1 – a) + y * a, i.e., the linear blend of x and y. genType step (genType edge, genType x) genType step (float edge, genType x) // Returns 0.0 if x < edge, otherwise it returns 1.0. genType smoothstep (genType edge0, genType edge1, genType x) genType smoothstep (float edge0, float edge1, genType x) // Returns 0.0 if x <= edge0 and 1.0 if x >= edge1 and performs smooth Hermite interpolation between 0 and 1 when edge0 < x < edge1. This is useful in cases where you would want a threshold function with a smooth transition. This is equivalent to: genType t; t = clamp ((x – edge0) / (edge1 – edge0), 0, 1); return t * t * (3 – 2 * t); Geometric Functions float length (genType x) float distance (genType p0, genType p1) float dot (genType x, genType y) vec3 cross (vec3 x, vec3 y) genType normalize (genType x) genType faceforward (genType N, genType I, genType Nref) genType reflect (genType I, genType N) genType refract(genType I, genType N, float eta) vec4 ftransform() // For vertex shaders only. This function will ensure that the incoming vertex value will be transformed in a way that produces exactly the same result as would be produced by OpenGL’s fixed functionality transform. It is intended to be used to compute gl Position (gl Position = ftransform(); ). TyphoonLabs’ GLSL Course 21/21 Matrix Functions The following functions work on operating component-wise over the vectors. For vector results, use the following built-in functions: bvec is a placeholder for one of bvec2, bvec3, or bvec4; ivec is a placeholder for one of ivec2, ivec3, or ivec4; and vec is a placeholder for vec2, vec3, or vec4. In all cases, the sizes of the input and return vectors for any particular call must match. bvec lessThan(vec x, vec y) bvec lessThan(ivec x, ivec y) //Returns the component-wise compare of x < y. bvec lessThanEqual(vec x, vec y) bvec lessThanEqual(ivec x, ivec y) //Returns the component-wise compare of x <= y. bvec greaterThan(vec x, vec y) bvec greaterThan(ivec x, ivec y) //Returns the component-wise compare of x > y. bvec greaterThanEqual(vec x, vec y) bvec greaterThanEqual(ivec x, ivec y) //Returns the component-wise compare of x >= y. bvec equal(vec x, vec y) bvec equal(ivec x, ivec y) bvec equal(bvec x, bvec y) //Returns the component-wise compare of x == y. bvec notEqual(vec x, vec y) bvec notEqual(ivec x, ivec y) bvec notEqual(bvec x, bvec y) //Returns the component-wise compare of x != y. bool any(bvec x) //Returns true if any component of x is true. bool all(bvec x) //Returns true only if all components of x are true. bvec not(bvec x) //Returns the component-wise logical complement of x. TyphoonLabs’ GLSL Course 22/22 Texture Lookup Functions Texture lookup functions are available to both vertex and fragment shaders. However, LOD (level of detail) is not computed by fixed functionality for vertex shaders, so there are some differences in operation between vertex and fragment texture lookups. The functions in the table below provide access to textures through samplers, as setup through the OpenGL API. Texture properties such as size, pixel format, number of dimensions, filtering method, number of mip-map levels, and depth comparison are also defined through OpenGL. These properties are taken into account when the texture is accessed via the built-in functions defined below. The bias parameter is optional for fragment shaders, and is not accepted in a vertex shader. If bias is present, it is added to the calculated LOD prior to performing the texture access operation. If the bias parameter is not provided, then the implementation automatically selects the LOD. For textures that are not mip-mapped, the texture is used directly. If the textures are mip-mapped and running within a fragment shader, the LOD computed by the implementation is used to do the texture lookup. If running on the vertex shader, then the base texture is simply used. The built-in suffixes with Lod are allowed only within vertex shaders. lod is directly used as the level of detail.. One Dimension Textures Use the texture coordinate coord to perform a texture texture1DProj (sampler1D sampler, vec2 coord [, float bias]) lookup within the 1D texture1DProj (sampler1D sampler, vec4 coord [, float bias]) texture currently bound to sampler. For the texture1DLod (sampler1D sampler, float coord, float lod) projective (Proj) versions, texture coordinate texture1DProjLod (sampler1D sampler, vec2 coord, float lod) the coords is divided by the texture1DProjLod (sampler1D sampler, vec4 coord, float lod) last component of coord. vec4 texture1D (sampler1D sampler, float coord [, float bias]) vec4 vec4 vec4 vec4 vec4 Two Dimensions Textures vec4 vec4 vec4 vec4 vec4 vec4 Use the texture coordinate coord to perform a texture texture2D (sampler2D sampler, vec2 coord [, float bias]) lookup within the 2D texture2DProj (sampler2D sampler, vec3 coord [, float bias]) texture currently bound to sampler. For the texture2DProj (sampler2D sampler, vec4 coord [, float bias]) projective (Proj) versions, the texture coordinate texture2DLod (sampler2D sampler, vec2 coord, float lod) coords is divided by the texture2DProjLod (sampler2D sampler, vec3 coord, float lod) last component of coord. texture2DProjLod (sampler2D sampler, vec4 coord, float lod) The third component of coord is ignored for the vec4 coord variant. TyphoonLabs’ GLSL Course 23/23 Three Dimensions Textures vec4 vec4 vec4 vec4 Use the texture coordinate coord to perform a texture texture3D (sampler3D sampler, vec3 coord [, float bias]) lookup within the 3D texture3DProj (sampler3D sampler, vec4 coord [, float bias]) texture currently bound to sampler. For the texture3DLod (sampler3D sampler, vec3 coord, float lod) projective (Proj) versions, texture3DProjLod (sampler3D sampler, vec4 coord, float lod) the texture coordinate is divided by coord. Cube Map Textures vec4 textureCube (samplerCube sampler, vec3 coord [, float bias] ) vec4 textureCubeLod (samplerCube sampler, vec3 coord, float lod) Use the texture coordinate coord to perform a texture lookup within the cube-map texture currently bound to sampler. The direction of coord is used to select which face to perform a 2dimensional texture lookup on, as described within section 3.8.6 of the OpenGL 1.4 specification. Shadow Textures vec4 shadow1D (sampler1DShadow sampler, vec3 coord [, float bias] ) vec4 shadow2D (sampler2DShadow sampler, vec3 coord [, float bias] ) vec4 shadow1DProj (sampler1DShadow sampler, vec4 coord [, float bias]) vec4 shadow2DProj (sampler2DShadow sampler, vec4 coord [, float bias]) vec4 shadow1DLod (sampler1DShadow sampler, vec3 coord, float lod) vec4 shadow2DLod (sampler2DShadow sampler, vec3 coord, float lod) vec4 shadow1DProjLod(sampler1DShadow sampler, vec4 coord, float lod) Use the texture coordinate coord to perform a depth comparison lookup on the depth texture bound to sampler, as described in section 3.8.14 of the OpenGL 1.4 specification. The 3rd component of coord (coord.p) is used as the R value. The texture bound to sampler must be a depth texture, or the results are undefined. For the projective (Proj) version of each built-in variable, the texture coordinate is divided by coord, giving a depth value (R) of coord.p/coord.q. The second component of coord is ignored for the “1D” variants. vec4 shadow2DProjLod(sampler2DShadow sampler, vec4 coord, float lod) . TyphoonLabs’ GLSL Course 24/24 Fragment Processing Functions Fragment processing functions are only available within shaders intended for use on the fragment processor. Derivatives may be expensive (from a computation point-of-view) and/or numerically unstable. Therefore, an OpenGL implementation may approximate the true derivatives by using a fast, though not entirely accurate, derivative computation: Returns the derivative within x, using local differencing for the input argument p. Returns the derivative within y, using local differencing for the input argument p. These two functions are commonly genType dFdy (genType p) used to estimate the filter width used to anti-alias procedural textures. Returns the sum of the absolute derivative within x and y, genType fwidth (genType p) using local differencing for the input argument p, i.e: return = abs (dFdx (p)) + abs (dFdy (p)); genType dFdx (genType p) Noise Functions Noise functions are available to both vertex and fragment shaders. Other than the following, we will take a further look at noise within a later chapter. float noise1 (genType x) vec2 noise2 (genType x) vec3 noise3 (genType x) vec4 noise4 (genType x) Returns a 1D noise value based on the input value x. Returns a 2D noise value based on the input value x. Returns a 3D noise value based on the input value x. Returns a 4D noise value based on the input value x. TyphoonLabs’ GLSL Course 25/25

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